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Primary production in the Southern Ocean, 1997–2006 Interannual variability in annual production was most closely tied to changes in sea ice cover, although changes in sea surface temperature also played a role. Only 31% of the variation in annual production was explained by the Southern Annular Mode. Annual primary production could increase in the future as stronger winds increase nutrient upwelling. Citation: Arrigo, K. R., G. L. van Dijken
White and Peterson (1996) identified significant interannual variations in surface pressure, wind, temperature and sea-ice extent over the Southern Ocean. They suggest that these parameters are phase-locked and that the coherent anomalies propagate eastward with the circumpolar flow, with a period of four to five years and a wavelength of 180° in longitude, forming the so-called "Antarctic
Southern Ocean Warming | Oceanography
ENSO-related impacts on Antarctic sea ice: a synthesis of ... The cryosphere in the Southern Ocean is an active component in global climate. It is also influenced by the many local, regional and remote climate variabilities at periods ranging from synoptic to geological timescales. Since satellite observations became available in the 1970s, many studies have investigated the interannual variability of sea ice and its covariation with global climate. A
Interannual variability in sea-ice thickness in the … Although October–February is the ice retreat season in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean (Ushio, 2006), the sea-ice concentration increased from November to December in 1993, 1994, and 2011. Note that these years correspond to years of strong northerly wind, particularly 1993 and 2011. It is likely that in these years the sea ice was ridged and rafted around the coastal region